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African-Americans in Boston: More than 350 Years Boston Public Library Sales Office Copublished by the Boston Public Library and the Bank of Boston, this book highlights African-Americans who have brought influence and honor to the course of events in the history of Boston -- and beyond. Strong, brief text on hundreds of names, including Prince Hall, Melnea Cass, William Monroe Trotter, Allan Rohan Crite, Sgt. William Carney, Lewis Latimer, Crispus Attucks, and Elma Lewis. Includes more than 100 illustrations. European Contact/Colonial, Revolution/Federal, Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860), Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Metropolitan Era (1900-1980), Contemporary/Future  
Boston: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation,  Image of Judge Samuel Sewall Supreme Judicial Court Historical Society Judge Samuel Sewall is best known for presiding over the Salem Witch Trials, but he later renounced his role in those infamous trials. He later became Chief Justice from 1718-1728. A voluminous writer, his diary has produced many important insights into his period. His book against slavery, "The Selling of Joseph," is considered the first  anti-slavery statement of an important Massachusetts colonist. At the Supreme Judicial Court Historical Society website a special feature on The Chief Justices of the Supreme Judicial Court includes Sewell, and his portrait comes from this source. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Boston: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Image of Robert Morris Social Law Library This image shows Robert Morris, a pioneering African-American lawyer.  In 1847, he became the second black lawyer in America when he was admitted to the bar in Massachusetts, and in 1852, he was appointed as the first black judge in America by the Governor of Massachusetts. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Boston: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Image of the Abiel Smith School Boston Athenaeum The Abiel Smith School, originally located in the basement of the African Meeting House, was built adjacent to the AMH despite the fact that some parents were already concerned about the segregation  of their children.  Just as the African School on Nantucket was closed after the school system was integrated, the Smith School was also closed after the Boston school system was integrated, even though the building was only 20 years old. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Boston: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Image of William Cooper Nell Massachusetts Historical Society William Cooper Nell was an African-American abolitionist.  He moved from Boston, MA to Rochester, NY to begin publishing Frederick Douglass' North Star, but later returned to Boston.  He was a strong advocate for ending the segregation within the Boston public schools, in part, because of his own experience attending the Abiel Smith School. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Boston: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation. Image of Charles Sumner Library of Congress   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Boston: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation; Image of Justice Lemuel Shaw Social Law Library Justice Lemuel Shaw is seated in the pose that portrays him as the Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts.  His decision in the case of Roberts v. City of Boston was eventually used by the US Supreme Court in the Plessey v. Ferguson, which justified the concept of "separate but equal" facilities; segregated public facilities for people of color were legal so long as they were comparable to those facilities used by whites - in most cases, the facilities for people of color were unequal and of poorer quality. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Chicopee, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Document, Petition to General Court for a Ten-Hour Day Massachusetts Archives Petition of Chicopee
To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives in General Court assembled.

WE, the undersigned Petitioners, respectfully represent, that we are Mechanics, Artisans and Laborers, employed by the several Manufacturing Companies in Chicopee, Mass. That while we recognize and acknowledge to the farthest extent, our obligations to rend a full equivalent, in labor for our wages, at the same time, GOD has imposed OTHER obligations upon us, as MEN, HEADS OF FAMILIES and MEMBERS of society: that now our working hours are so far claimed by the present system of labor, as to leave little or no time to devote to the great and holy duties of our common humanity. To secure a small portion of time in which to perform these cultural (?), social and domestic duties, and to work out, to live out, our mission not simply as machines of labor, but of LIVING, THINKING, BREATHING MEN.
We pray that the Legislature will establish by law the number of hours of Labor which shall be held and taken as the legal measure of a day's work. And in view of our responsibilities as well to ourselves as to our employers; of their rights and of ours; of the value of life, health and intelligence, as well as the profits of labor; of the greatest good both to the employer and the employee, we would respectfully ask that the measure may be TEN HOURS. And as in duty bound will ever pray
(NAMES signed below)
Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source;  Lizzie Borden Website Archives University of Massachusetts CCBIT As part of a joint grant project, CCBIT has adapted its college course to K-12 audience to provide primary sources on Lizzie Borden and Fall River that can be used as a case study along with the other primary sources in this electronic library to encourage community research on this period of Mass. industrial history. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Cartoon, Irish Workers Fall River Historical Society This cartoon from a Fall River paper depicts Irish construction workers and a laundry woman.doing lowly jobs. Newspaper articles and cartoons are good sources for discovering attitudes toward the newcomers of ethnic origins. Listings of police records, court case findings also can be examined for judicial fairness. By 1881 there was an Irish American paper in Fall River which reported notable events, but also incidents of discrimination against the Irish, such as not allowing Irish children to wear green on St. Patrick's Day. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Document, 1876 Directory, List of Cotton Mills in Fall River Fall River Historical Society This list shows the number of cotton mills (32), spindles (1,264,764), and looms (30,064) with capital of $14,685,000. Bky 1900 there were 8s mills with an incorporated capital of $26,000,000 and probable investment of $47,000,000 with about 3,000,000 spindles and 71,000 looms. It was number one in cotton manufacturing in U.S. during this time. (Payson Lyman, Fall River) Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Document, Board of Health Report on Causes of Death, 1882 p.1 Fall River Historical Society Fall River Board of Health Deaths for the year 1882 : Total 1463, from the causes contained in the accompanying schedule: Abcess   8  Heart Disease  27 Abuminuria  1  Hemipligia  2 Accident  7  Hemorrhage  9 Albumina  1  Hydrocephalus 9 Aneurism  1  Hypertrophy  1 Angina Pectgoris  4  Inanition  15 Anemia  2  Indigestion  2 Apoplexy  17  Insanity  7 Asphyxia  1  Intemperance  3 Asthenia  1  Jaundice  1 Asthma  1  Kidney Disease 18 Bowels, Disease of 12  Kyphosis  1  Brain Congestion 9  Liver Disease  13 Brain Fever  6  Lock Jaw  1 Brain, Inflammation 5  Lung Disease  14 Bronchitis  54  Marasmus  41 Burns and Scalds 10  Measles  1 Cachoxia  1  Meningitis  36 Cancer   14  Mescuteritis  1 Canker Rash  1  Nephritis  3 Change of Life  1  Neuralgia  1 Childbirth  1  Old Age  34 Cholera Infantum 123  Paralysis  19 Cholera Morbus 11  Peritonitis  12 Cold and Exposure 5  Phthisis  50 Consumption  92  Pleurisy  3 Convulsions  68  Pneumonia  55 Croup   36  Poisoning  2 Cystitis  1  Premature Birth 5 Debility, General 22  Puerperal Feber 6 Debility, Infantile 26  Purcarditis  1 Dentition  4  Puspura  1 Diabetes  3  Pyamia   11 Diarrhea  43  Rheumatism  4 Diptheria  26  Scarlet Fever  3 Dropsy   28  Scarletina  1 Drowned  14  Sciatica  1 Dysentery  30  Small Pox  3 Dyspepsia  1  Spinal Disease  4 Emplyema  1  Still Born  101 Enteritis  46  Suicide  1 Enter Colitis  4  Syphillis  3 Epilepsy  5  Tetanus  2 Erysipelas  7  Teething  5 Exhaustion  2  Tuberculosis  30 Fever   6  Tumor   5 Fit   2  Typhoid Fever  48 Fracture  2  Ulcers   5 Gangrene  5  Unknown  9 Gastritis  13  Weakness  6      Whooping Couch 22 Total 1,463 Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Document, Board of Health Report on Causes of Death, 1882 p.2 Fall River Historical Society See p. 1 for listing of causes of death. Have many of these causes have you never heard of?  Note those causes which have been eradicated or rare. Which causes are due to the unsanitary conditions within which worked lived and worked? Check out the state Health statistics to see how Fall River compared with other industrial cities in such waterborne diseases as cholera. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Document, City Report, 1877 Fall River Historical Society Under City Report 1877, Document #30: Mayor was James F. Davenport and his six Aldermen included O'Neill, Looney & Leary, Irish; Macfarlane, Scottish; Davenport, Davol, Durfee and Ballard, Yankee and English-Lancashire. (How can information be checked out on voting representation?) The City voting reflected ethnic splits in the population.The English-Americans were primarily Protestant and joined with original Yankees to form the Republican majority. The Irish Americans were a political force by the 1870s as pro-labor and strongly Democratic, but they were not able to elect a mayor until the 1884 elections. French Canadians did not emigrate to Fall River in any numbers until after the Civil War, but by the 1880s they had over 15,000 residents. Their political impact was not immediately felt because of their alien image and language barriers, and they were not politically allied with labor. However, they became the dominant ethnic group by the end of the century. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Document, Fall River Directory 1876 Fall River Historical Society This cover to the 1876 City Directory does not explain its usefulness for research on industries, and businesses of the community. Usually they are annual and provide statistics for that year on numbers of workers, products, value and income. The advertisements put a more human face on the economic life and often include information on the community as well. Check your town or city archives or your public library. A complete set of city directories of Fall River (and 11 other cities of MA) can be found on the website Primary Source Media (http:www.citydirectories.psmedia.com) Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Floorplan 1st Floor Borden Residence University of Massachusetts CCBIT Information on the significance of this illustration in the trial of Lizzie Borden can be found in the CCBITwebsite for the Lizzie/Fall River project. Primary sources were used as evidence in developing the case for study and in promoting inductive reasoning. Sources on larger issues of Fall River, the state and the US provided context for the period of late 19th century. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Illustration, Cook Borden Lumber Mill Fall River Historical Society The advertisement which appeared in the City Directory  for this company called them Dealers in Lumber and Boxes. Under a picture of a horse-drawn carriage carrying lumber, was this description:  Plain Floor Boards and Matched Boards, always on hand. Planing and Sawing Done to Order, at Bowenville, Fall River, Mass. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Illustration, Corliss Centennial Engine,1876 Fall River Historical Society This Corliss Engine appears at the US Centennial Exposition in Machinery Hall, Philadelphia, 1876. Opening ceremonies included the starting of this great engine by President Grant, which started all the machinery in Machinery Hall. In addition to Fall River, many other Mass. manufacturing cities were represented: Lowell, Lawrence, Worcester, Springfield, Southbridge and Salem. See also Borden Manugacturing Co. image of engine. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Illustration, Fall River Opera House 1881 Fall River Historical Society The image is from an advertisement for the Fall River Opera House. The newspaper heading reports a hearing takes place at City Hall in 1881 on a petition to deny a license to the Opera House on the grounds it corrupts the morals of the public, especially youg boys. It is called a "danagerous school of vice" and a "hellhole. (p. 382, Silvia) Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Illustration, Troy Machine Company Fall River Historical Society This advertisement for Troy textile machinery, inicluding the high speed Spool Winder, was promoted at the time of the Centennial Exposition in 1876, when industrial machinery took center stage. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Lizzie Borden's Neighborhood University of Massachusetts CCBIT The significance of the neighborhood in the trial of Lizzie Borden is brought out through primary and secondary sources which give students an understanding of the importance of context. Check the CCBIT website for a walking tour of the neighborhood (under development) which stands alone and is a model of what any school could produce as a community study. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Lizzie Borden's Trial University of Massachusetts CCBIT Information on the significance of this illustration in the trial of Lizzie Borden can be found in the CCBITwebsite for the Lizzie/Fall River project. Primary sources were used as evidence in developing the case for study and in promoting inductive reasoning. Sources on larger issues of Fall River, the state and the US provided context for the period of late 19th century. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Map, Bird's Eye View 1877 Fall River Historical Society Bird's Eye maps were common in the 1870s and 1880s. Depending upon the illustrators, they provided unusually accurate detail for drawings, right down to architectural styles and are a good research source for comparing development of that period with today (and other dates). Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Photo, Borden Residence University of Massachusetts CCBIT Information on the significance of this illustration in the trial of Lizzie Borden can be found in the CCBITwebsite for the Lizzie/Fall River project. Primary sources were used as evidence in developing the case for study and in promoting inductive reasoning. Sources on larger issues of Fall River, the state and the US provided context for the period of late 19th century. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Photo, Borden School (?) Fall River Historical Society According to Payson Lyman in his monograph, Fall River, (1901, p. 308) "Fall River has a large school population, hence an unusually heavy school burden. Its teachers are not as well paid as they deserve to be, and as are the teachers of other cities." He cites the early commitment of Fall River to provide free textbooks (1st city in state), and one of the first to support manual training and free kindergartens. School reports are part of the annual City and state reports and should be consulted for specific information on the period of 1865-1885 when many immigrant children of school age in Fall River worked in the factories and did not receive proper schooling. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Photo, Civil War Soldiers Fall River Historical Society This picture shows enlisted men on Main Stree. Tehy are Capt. James Brady's ksoldiers on furlough from New Orleans, April 5, 18654. An 1865 news report told that Fall River had contributed a number of men over and above quota for enlistments for voluneers for the Civil War. The number exclusive of the 3-months men was 1900, with additional naval service men not counted. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Photo, Hour in a Speeder Room of a Fall River Cotton Mill Fall River Historical Society From a postal card collection of the Fall River Historical Society which students at Durfee High School converted to CD-ROMs. Selected images from this valuable work can be seen through the High School librarian Jane Constant, and on the website xxx. This database project hopes to convert additionL images to a suitable memory size for inclusion here. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Photo, King Philip's Mill Worker Housing Fall River Historical Society The need for constructing tenements was high in 1870s when this worker housing on King Philip property was built. Tenement houses were sometimes built for employees by the mill companies, but many in the working class were not provided for, such as mechanics and traders. In 1872 when this picture was taken, 6,000 new inhabitatants had arrived in Fall River. Only about half found homes in the mill tenements and others had to search long and hard. Some could not bring families over for want of a dwelling. The City estimated that with anticipated increases in population, homes for 15,000 would have to be built.  The same year the Board of Health cited conditions in some tenement areas as unfit for occupancy, with dirty streets, polluted water and other unsanitary conditions conducive of disease Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Photo, Mill Men and Boys Fall River Historical Society Interior scene of working men and boys, mill unidentified. Young children represented a large number of the work force; 15-25%, depending on the factory and date. Factory schools were set up as a result of a state requirement for school attendance, and every 3 months 1/4 of the children were selected to attend. Certificates of attendance were kept by the overseer. The Fall River factory school in Jan. 1869 had 218 scholars, many of them French Canadian who needed instruction in English. One problem noted in an 1869 report was that parents sometimes falsified the ages of their children to keep them in work the whole year because they needed the money. Some mill overseers didn't enforce the school attendance as well. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Photo, Print Cloth Machinery at American Print Works Fall River Historical Society Cotton textiles made in some mills were converted to calico print in mills such as the American Print Works, which had the greatest output of any in the country. Competition from the south gradually drove northern mills to producing finer goods, such as quilts, crochet, lace curtains and gingham.(Payson Lyman, pp. 300-302) Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Photo, Women textile workers Fall River Historical Society Note the cotton fibers on the clothing of women workers in this picture. They were also breathing these fibers all during their 12-13 hr. day at the mill. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Postal Card Collection on CD-ROM, Fiber worker and mill machinery B. M. C. Durfee High School There are five CD-ROMs of this postal card collection scanned at the High School Library, which include 500 images: 1) textile mills; 2) Murals on Fall River History and Fa.. River Schools; 3) Granit Quarry; 4) Beaches, Parks,Cemeteries, Steamships; and 5) City Views ca. 1900, with many cards involving mill scenes and workers. This scene shows a fiber worker and mill machinery in Fall River. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860), Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Postal card collection on CD-ROM, Sanford Spinning Co. B. M. C. Durfee High School There are five CD-ROMs of this postal card collection, canned at the High School Library, which include 500 images: 1) textile mills; 2) Murals on Fall River History and Fa.. River Schools; 3) Granit Quarry; 4) Beaches, Parks,Cemeteries, Steamships; and 5) City Views ca. 1900, with many cards involving mill scenes and workers. This scene shows the Sanford spinning Co. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860), Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Postal card collection on CD-ROM; City Building Draped in Flags B. M. C. Durfee High School There are five CD-ROMs of this postal card collection, canned at the High School Library, which include 500 images: 1) textile mills; 2) Murals on Fall River History and Fa.. River Schools; 3) Granit Quarry; 4) Beaches, Parks,Cemeteries, Steamships; and 5) City Views ca. 1900, with many cards involving mill scenes and workers. This scene shows  a city building bedecked with flags for the Centennial celebration. (check celebration) Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860), Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Postal card collection on CD-ROM; Fall River Mill B. M. C. Durfee High School There are five CD-ROMs of this postal card collection, canned at the High School Library, which include 500 images: 1) textile mills; 2) Murals on Fall River History and Fa.. River Schools; 3) Granit Quarry; 4) Beaches, Parks,Cemeteries, Steamships; and 5) City Views ca. 1900, with many cards involving mill scenes and workers. This Fall River mill is not identified. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860), Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Postal card collection on CD-ROM; Nathan Durfee, Mill Owner B. M. C. Durfee High School There are five CD-ROMs of this postal card collection, canned at the High School Library, which include 500 images: 1) textile mills; 2) Murals on Fall River History and Fa.. River Schools; 3) Granit Quarry; 4) Beaches, Parks,Cemeteries, Steamships; and 5) City Views ca. 1900, with many cards involving mill scenes and workers. This portrait is of Nathan Durfee, mill owner. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860), Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Postal card collection on CD-ROM; Nathaniel Borden, Mill Owner B. M. C. Durfee High School There are five CD-ROMs of this postal card collection, canned at the High School Library, which include 500 images: 1) textile mills; 2) Murals on Fall River History and Fa.. River Schools; 3) Granit Quarry; 4) Beaches, Parks,Cemeteries, Steamships; and 5) City Views ca. 1900, with many cards involving mill scenes and workers. This portrait is of Nathaniel Borden, mill owner. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860), Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Postal card collection on CD-ROM; One Hour in the Speeder Room B. M. C. Durfee High School There are five CD-ROMs of this postal card collection, canned at the High School Library, which include 500 images: 1) textile mills; 2) Murals on Fall River History and Fa.. River Schools; 3) Granit Quarry; 4) Beaches, Parks,Cemeteries, Steamships; and 5) City Views ca. 1900, with many cards involving mill scenes and workers. This scene shows women workers in the "speeder room." Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860), Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Postal card collection on CD-ROM; William Davol, Mill Owner B. M. C. Durfee High School There are five CD-ROMs of this postal card collection, canned at the High School Library, which include 500 images: 1) textile mills; 2) Murals on Fall River History and Fa.. River Schools; 3) Granit Quarry; 4) Beaches, Parks,Cemeteries, Steamships; and 5) City Views ca. 1900, with many cards involving mill scenes and workers. This portrait is of William Davol, mill owner. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860), Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Fall River, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Postal card collection on CD-ROM; Women Mill Workers with Overseers B. M. C. Durfee High School There are five CD-ROMs of this postal card collection, canned at the High School Library, which include 500 images: 1) textile mills; 2) Murals on Fall River History and Fa.. River Schools; 3) Granit Quarry; 4) Beaches, Parks,Cemeteries, Steamships; and 5) City Views ca. 1900, with many cards involving mill scenes and workers. This scene shows two overseers with women mill workers and the textile machinery they ran. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860), Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Holyoke, Massachusetts: Primary Source, Illustration, The Holyoke Mills in the late 19th Century Connecticut Valley Historical Museum After the Civil War Holyoke became an expanding industrial complex because of its falls and the railroad openingup distribution. It changed from a small farming village called the Ireland Parish to an industrial center named "The Paper City". A widespread depression in 1893 which lasted 4 or 5 years caused significant changes to Holyoke industries. Several textile companies had slow downs or shut downs, and many paper companies were forced to merge by 1899 except for the major company the Gill  Co. (From Pioneer Valley, 70-71) Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860), Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Holyoke, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Illustration, Holyoke: "The Paper City," 1875 University of Massachusetts Press This illustration of Holyoke in 1875  shows a city that was growing in importance as a textile and paper center. "...Holyoke struggled to make it as a textile town, but achieved financial sucess only when it turned to papermaking. Holyoke's population zoomed from 14,000 in 1873 to 21,961 in 1880." (Atlas, p. 36) Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Lawrence, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Illustration, Plan, Bay State Mills, 1846 American Textile History Museum The success of Lowell lured textile mill investors to another Merrimack falls site. The city of  Lawrence was developed in 1845. The plan for the Bay State Mills was ready in 1846 and other mills followed, but they never reaached the number of Lowell or Fall River. By 1875 Lawrence was inundataed with 8,000 "poverty-stricken Irish"... and by 1900 "a viable French Candian ghetto" existed. (Historical Atlas of Mass., p. 35) Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Lowell, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Illustration, Bell Time Lowell National Historical Park Winslow Homer's earlier romantic pictures of young mill girls gave way to scenes like this one showing the tired faces of women and children as they spilled out at belltime after a long, hard day. This was drawn from Harper's Weekly in 1868, and was alleged to be of Washington Mills, but could be any mill. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Lowell, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Illustration, Merrimack Mills Trade Card American Antiquarian Society The Boston Associates found the Waltham  location for the complete manufacturing of cloth at one site so successful  that additional water power was needed. They scouted around for a new site and a site at the Pawtucket Falls of the Merrimack River was selected. Here in 1821 Lowell began and the Merrimack Manufacturing Company was the first of many manufacturing companies to be built at this location. The trademark of the company shows a bolt of cloth and a mill girl on the left and the machinery for the cloth pattern on the right . Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Lowell, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Illustration, Merrimack Power Loom Jeans Label American Textile History Museum Original wood engraving for cloth label, Museum of American Textile History collection. Often these labels provided excellent illustrations of their factory or the product. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Lowell, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Illustration, Woman at Loom Lowell National Historical Park This mill worker, a drawing-in girl, draws warp ends through a reed, to set up the loom for waeving. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Metropolitan Era (1900-1980)  
Lowell, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Photo: Eva & Alvana Desroches at Lowell Mills Lowell Historical Society   Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Massachusetts and US: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation,  Masthead from the North Star Library of Congress   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Massachusetts and US: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Image of Frederick Douglass Library of Congress This is an image of a black and white film copy negative stored in the Library of Congress. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Massachusetts and US: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Image of Lydia Maria Child Library of Congress   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Massachusetts and US: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Image of National Negro Convention Library of Congress   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Massachusetts and US: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Image of William Lloyd Garrison Library of Congress This image is a copy of a black and white film negative found in the Library of Congress.  William Lloyd Garrison's signature appears at the bottom of the print. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Massachusetts and US: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Wendell Phillips speaking at anti-slavery rally in Boston Library of Congress   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Massachusetts: Primary Source;  Act to Authorize Cities and Towns to Establish and Maintain Public Libraries Massachusetts Archives (Check Acts & Resolves for final wording & Act number) An Act to Authorize Cities and Towns to establish and maintain public libraries Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives, in General Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows: Section 1: Any city or town of the commonwealth is hereby aurhorized to establish and maintain a public library within the same, with or without branches, for the use of the inhabitants thereof, and to provide suitable rooms herefor, under such regulations for the government of such library aned may, from time to time, be prescribed by the City Council of such City or the inhabitants of such town. Section 2. Any city or town may appropriate, for the foundation and commencement of such library, as aforesaid, a sum not exceeding one dollar,....... Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Massachusetts: Primary Source;  Compulsary Education Act, 1852, Massachusetts Archives Chapter 240, Massachusetts Acts & Resolves 1852 Act Concerning the Attendance of Children at School Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives, in General Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows: Sect. 1. Every person who shall have any child under his control, between the ages of eight and fourteen years, shall send such child to some public school within the town or city in which he resides, during at least twelve weeks, if the public schools within such town or city shall be so long kept, in each and every year during which such child shall be under his control, six weeks of which shall be consecutive." Sect 2: Persons who violate pay $20 fine Sect 3: School committee to inquire into violations and causes Sect 4: Attendance at any school in or out of town, no violation Sect 5: Duty of Treasurer of town to prosecute Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Nantucket: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Absalom Boston Portrait Nantucket Historical Association   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Nantucket: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Image of African Meeting House Nantucket Historical Association   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Nantucket: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Image of Anna Gardner Nantucket Historical Association   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Nantucket: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Image of Cyrus Pierce Nantucket Historical Association   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Nantucket: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Image of Eliza Starbuck Barney Nantucket Historical Association   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Nantucket: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Image of Nathaniel Barney Nantucket Historical Association   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Nantucket: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Image of Whaling ship Library of Congress   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Nantucket: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, TAKE NOTICE! Ruin of the School System broadside Nantucket Historical Association Transcript of the handbill re: the Ruin of the School SystemTAKE NOTICE! The Town is flooded with slanderous and denunciatory Handbills, from two, APPARENTLY DIFFERENT, sources; but all aimed chiefly against the political and personal character of one or two individuals.  The only Daily paper among us is overawed by a knot of purse-proud factionists, whereby the assailed are precluded from rendering justice to those interests which claim protection from the malignity of persecution, and the wild phrenzy of Fanaticism.  All the powers of darkness, MISCHIEF and MAMMON, PLUTO and PLUTUS combined, have been let loose upon those devoted citizens who dare to stand foremost in opposition to this fiendish coalition.  Upstart and brainless ambition, based upon NO MERIT BUT MONEY, has meanly conspired with the more wily demon of Radicalism, to propagate contemptible FALSEHOODS and SLANDERS.  Already have their joint efforts dismembered one great party in this place; and the entire Ruin of the School System being their ultimate object, the DEFENDERS OF THAT SYSTEM are of course the present subjects of their malicious fury! But a day of retribution must come!  The public may confidently trust, that an authentic history of the contemptible intrigues - a faithful description of the vile machinery - a graphic sketch of the depraved actors, engaged in this scandalous scheme; with ample details of facts, plots, and persons, shall, in due time, be forthcoming! ------Tremble thou wretch, That hath within thee undivulged crimes,  Unwhipped of justice! Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
North Central Mass. Fitchburg, Mass.:  Primary Source; Postal Card of Fitchburg Normal School private collection Fitchburg normal school became Fitchburg State College. A normal school was a teacher's college, and Fitchburg was founded in xxx , one of the earliest, behind Framingham State and xxx. This card came form a private collection. There are many private collectors who sell cards at fairs, antique shows and rummage sales. Historical Societies usually have collections too. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Metropolitan Era (1900-1980)  
North Central Mass. Gardner, Mass.:  Primary Source; Postal Card of Colonial Hotel, Gardner Gardner Museum The Colonial Hotel in Gardner is still in Gardner, but as a a low-income apartment building, not a hotel. Note the early 20th century car in the foreground. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Metropolitan Era (1900-1980)  
North Central Mass. Gardner, Mass.: Primary Source; Postal Card of The Square Gardner Museum The large triangular building, rounded and three stories high, was considered pretty architecture when it was built at the turn of the century. Because it had stores on the first floor and around the corner, it was called the Syndicate Block. The lesser building to the left was the old Town Hall, and beyond that, barely in view, was the old Town Library, now the Gardner Museum. At this busy intersection, a fine hotel, called the Windsor House, once graced this corner. Today only the Library (Gardner Museum) remains. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Metropolitan Era (1900-1980)  
North Central Mass. Gardner, Mass.: Primary Source; Postal Card of View of Broadway, South Gardner Gardner Museum This turn of the century scene still looks the same today in South Gardner. The white New England appearing First Baptist Church is the same, but fewer trains are on the tracks. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Metropolitan Era (1900-1980)  
North Central Mass. Westminster, Mass.:  Primary Source; Postal Card of Forbush Memorial Library, Westminster private collection This turn of the century postal card of the Forbush Memorial Library shows a spry gentleman with a fedora in the foreground. This library has been enlarged, but you can still identify the original building  This card came form a private collection. There are many private collectors who sell cards at fairs, antique shows and rummage sales. Historical Societies usually have collections too. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Metropolitan Era (1900-1980)  
North Central Mass. Westminster, Mass.:  Primary Source; Postal Card of Main Street, Westminster private collection Main Street in Westminster still has the same red brick building and Baptist Church shown in this postal card, but the street car tracks and horse and buggy are gone. This card came form a private collection. There are many private collectors who sell cards at fairs, antique shows and rummage sales. Historical Societies usually have collections too. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Metropolitan Era (1900-1980)  
North Central Mass. Westminster, Mass.:  Primary Source; Postal Card of Mt. Wachusett from Westminster side private collection This pastoral village in Westminster shows Mt. Wachusett in the background with a summit house on top. Westminster remains a main entry to the mountain which is now part of the state park system. This card came form a private collection. There are many private collectors who sell cards at fairs, antique shows and rummage sales. Historical Societies usually have collections too. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Metropolitan Era (1900-1980)  
North Central Mass. Westminster, Mass.:  Primary Source; Postal Card of Summit House on Mt. Wachusett private collection This grand Summit House on Mt. Wachusett was not the first of its kind, but fires took their toll. There is no Summit House today but there is a ski house at the top of the public facility. This card came form a private collection. There are many private collectors who sell cards at fairs, antique shows and rummage sales. Historical Societies usually have collections too. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Metropolitan Era (1900-1980)  
Not just Anywhere: The Rescue of New Bedford's Waterfront District Spinner Publications The chronicle of a massive preservation project led by a group of citizens who banded together to stop decay and desctruction in historic New Bedford, Massachusetts and created a Waterfront National Park replete with cobblestone streets and restored buildings. 200 Photos highlight historic architecture, capture dramatic bulldozing events, and show restoration and rebuilding in progress. Metropolitan Era (1900-1980), Contemporary/Future, Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860), Revolution/Federal  
Spinner Photo Archives Spinner Publications More than 300,000 photographs in historical archive relating to peoples, cultures, industries of Mass; especially Southeastern Mass. Lewis Hine photos of children and immigrants; maritime history photos; local industries; city neighborhoods, and more. Check archive information online or contact Jay Airla, Archivist at numbers above. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860), Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Metropolitan Era (1900-1980)  
Springfield, Massachusetts: Primary Source, Illustration, The U.S. Armory in Springfield Connecticut Valley Historical Museum The Springfield Armory, shown in this early view, developed an extensive arms production capability during the first half of the nineteenth century and attracted a large workforce of highly skilled laborers to theSkpringfield area. Originally established during the American Revolutin as a simple warehouse for military supplies, Congress upgraded the operation in 1794 and made it the official site for the development and production of U.S. Government firearms. During the Civil War the Armory would become a major producer of firearms for Union forces. The Armory closed in 1968, and the Springfield Technical Community College uses the Old Armory as an academic completex. There is also a museum in the Arsenal building which is now a Histsorical Site as part of the National Park Service. (Information from pp. 49, 126 of Pioneer Valley. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860), Industrial - Urban (1860-1900)  
Springfield, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Illustration, Springfield, 1854 University of Massachusetts Press This illustration shows Springfield as it was beginning to expand because of its strategic location on the Connecticut River and the development of the railroad. It wa snot just tied to the cotton industrial but had a variety of commercial and industrial companies.including the development of railroad cars and gun imanufacture. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Town of Wayland Seal Wayland Town Offices The Wayland Town Seal is the official seal of the town since its incorporation in 1835. The town was formerly East Sudbury in 1780 and the original settlement side (east) of the town of Sudbury in 1638 (incorporated in 1639). The scene depicts the Sudbury River which flows through the center of the town, with a bridge connecting the two sides. On one side are the Puritan settlers and the other the native Indians of the area. The waving of the handkerchief presumably indicates an overture of friendliness by the settlers toward the Indians. There was a so-called "deed"  when original proprietors purchased the land from Carto, an Indian, but the exact date and the identify of the native need further research. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Waltham, Massachusetts: Primary Source:; Poster, Boston Manufacturing Co. Waltham Historical Society The Boston Associates (Edmund Dwight, Kirk KBoott, Patrick T. Jackson, William Sturgis, Harrison Grey Otis, T.H. Perkins, Israel Thorndike, Abbott and Amos Lawrence, Nathan Applemeton, the Lowells, the Cabots, the Lymans, the Quincys the Eliots and the Blisses) were the money and power behind the development of the textile mill industsry in Mass.The first site for a planned factory system was Waltham, at the falls of the Charles River.. The Boston Manufacaturing Co. began in 1813 and a complete operation of manufacturing cloth at one site began in Mass. Soon it would spread to Lowell and other factory towns would be built to usher in the industrial revolution. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Waltham, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Photo, Waltham Railroad Station Waltham Historical Society   Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860)  
Boston: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, 1754 Slave Census Massachusetts Archives   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1754-55
Nantucket: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Flier for Free Schools on Nantucket Nantucket Historical Association   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1818
Nantucket: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, 1827 Report of the School Committee Nantucket Historical Association Excerpts from the Report of the School Committee of the Town of Nantucket, For March, 1827.To the inhabitants of the Town of Nantucket, assembled in Town Meeting, the School Committee of the Town make their annual Report…"It was claimed, and legally too, by parents of children that they were entitled to freedom of schools for the support of which they had contributed (paid taxes): and on the other hand, the Committee were embarrassed by the practical truth, that they could not at the same time execute the law and conform to the instructions imposed on them by the Town.""An appropriation at the rate of seventy five dollars per year has been made in part support of the African school, where about 30 scholars have been instructed." (Averaging to $2.50 per student at the African school)."The cost of instruction for each (white) pupil amounts to an average of four dollars per year." (400 students at $1800 per year.) Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1827
Nantucket: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation,  1830 Town Census Records Nantucket Historical Association   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1830
Massachusetts and US: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, 1830 State Census from the Liberator Library of Congress   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1831
Massachusetts and US: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Image of Nat Turner's Insurrection Library of Congress   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1831
Massachusetts and US: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Image of the Masthead of the Liberator Library of Congress   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1831
Lowell, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Map: Plan of the Town of Lowell, Belvidere Village, 1832 Lowell National Historical Park This Plan of the Town of Lowell, Belvidere Village, 1832, "Taken by Measurement by  Benjm Mather" shows the extent of the manufacturing business by this early date, as the first planned industrial town. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1832
Boston: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Memoir of James Jackson Library of Congress   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1833
Nantucket: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, 1834 Map of Nantucket by William Coffin Nantucket Historical Association To find the New Guinea section of Nantucket where the African Meeting House and most African Americans resided in Nantucket , zoom in to the area to the right of the word Nantucket. The small squrares represent houses or shops and the Meeting House is a larger square across from the last house to the right in the northeast direction.This map is reduced to 25% to show on the computer. If you zoom in twice, it enlarges it to the 100% size. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1834
Boston: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation,  Article from February, 1835 Liberator Library of Congress   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1835
Boston: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation,  Meeting at the African Meeting House from Liberator column Library of Congress Transcript of an article in the Liberator, June 6, 1835

GREAT MEETING OF THE COLORED CITIZENS OF BOSTON 

A highly respectable meeting was held by the people of color at the Belknap-street school room, to adopt measures expressive of their approbation and gratitude to George Thompson, Esq., for his able defence (sic) of their cause and the principles of Anti-Slavery.  Mr. Thomas Dalton was called to the chair, and Mr. S. R. Alexander appointed Secretary. 

The object of the meeting having been stated by the Chairman, the following resolutions were offered by Mr. John T. Hilton, seconded by Mr. James G. Barbadoes, and unanimously adopted. 

* Resolved, That we hold in high estimation the character of our distinguished friend and philanthropist, George Thompson, Esq. and greatly appreciate his labor of love in the cause of humanity and equal rights. 

* Resolved, That we tender thanks to God for raising up such a personage to plead our cause, and crave His blessings on all his future efforts in behalf of the oppressed people of color. 

* Resolved, That as touching the discussion of last week, we owe our friend Thompson our warmest, heartiest, and most unfeigned thanks of approbation, for the very able manner in which he defended our cause and the principles of Anti-Slavery, against the attacks of the AGENT and CHAMPION of the Colonization Society; and highly congratulate him upon the almost unanimous approbation with which his resolution, denouncing the Colonization Society, was received by the audience at the close of the debate. 

* Resolved, That we hail the passage of that resolution, especially at a time when both parties were present, as the harbinger of better times; and as bespeaking the growing favor of the community in our behalf, and foretelling the final triumph of our holy cause. 

* Resolved, That we consider the coming of our esteemed friend in this country, to be like the coming of Titus into Macedonia, and richly deserving of the united and hearty support of every man of color, every Christian, and every philanthropist throughout the land. 

* Voted, That the above be signed by the Chairman and Secretary, and inserted in the Liberator, and such other papers that are friendly to our cause.  

THOMAS DALTON, Chairman.  
S. R. ALEXANDER, Secretary.  

Boston, June 1, 1835.
Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1835
Boston: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Minot's 1835 Address to the Smith School Boston Public Library; Rare Books and Manuscripts Department Minot's address was published following the opening of the Abiel Smith School.  The Boston school committee was under a great deal of pressure to improve the classroom environment for students at the Smith School, located in the overcrowded basement of the African Meeting House.  Construction of the school, however, did not alleviate concerns that black students were still receiving a second-class education compared to schools serving more affluent white students.  This address offers the school committee's "response" to the concerns of the black community, and lauds its efforts in educating students of color in Boston.EXCERPTS from William Minot's Address at the Dedication of the Smith School, 1835:INTRODUCTION In the year 1798 Elisha Sylvester, a white man, kept a school about three months for the benefit and at the expense of the colored inhabitants of Boston.  The school was kept at the house of Primus Hall, near the corner of George and May streets, at which place it was continued, with some interruptions, till the year 1808.  During this period the school was principally supported by benevolent white gentlemen.  Messrs. Brown and Williams, two gentlemen from Harvard University, were successively the teachers. In the year 1808, the benefactors of the school informed the parents of the scholars that they should not support the school any longer unless they would furnish a school-room and provide fuel for the school.  The colored people immediately took measures for furnishing a suitable room.  A subscription was opened among themselves, and Messrs. Primus Hall, Fortune Symmes, and Cyrus Vassall were appointed an executive committee to take charge of business.  The committee made arrangements for finishing a room which was then erecting in Belknap street, for a house of public worship.  This cost them $180.  About that time, the Select-men of Boston appropriated $200 towards paying an instructor.  This sum, however, being insufficient, those parents who were able paid 12 1/2 cents a week for each scholar they sent.  The teachers who had charge of the school, while it was kept on this plan, were Cyrus Vassall, in 1808, Prince Saunders, from 1809, to 1812, and Peter Tracy, from 1812 to 1817.  These three teachers were all colored men. In Jan. 1818, Mr. James Waldock, a white man, was appointed teacher, with a salary of $400 a year, at first, which was afterwards raised to $500, in consideration of his wife's assistance.  In 1821 he was succeeded by John B. Russwurm, a colored man.  In 1824, Mr. Russwurm left the school for the purpose of entering Bowdoin College in Maine, and he was succeeded by Mr. William Bascom, who remained in the school till the spring of 1834, when Mr. Forbes, the present teacher, was appointed to his stead. (pages 1-2).ADDRESS On the 3rd of March 1835, the school for colored children in Boston was removed from the African Meeting-House, to a convenient and spacious house erected by the city for its reception.  On that occasion, a short address was made by the Chairman of the Committee of the school, the substance of which follows. We are assembled, my friends, for the purpose of dedicating this house to the instruction of the children of the colored people of this city.  It is a joyful occasion to all who feel an interest in the business of education.  To the parent especially it offers for his child the greatest blessing which society can bestow; and excepting religion, the greatest which the child can receive; and to the whole colored population, it presents the surest remedy for the evils of their present condition. In this day of the prosperity of the school, it is proper to look for a moment to its origin, and to inquire to whom you are indebted for suggesting so signal a benefit.  In estimating the character and capacity of the colored man; it ought always to be remembered, that the white man came educated to this western world, and has improved himself by two centuries of instruction.  He was proud of his freedom, and rejoiced in his knowledge, but he forgot the claims of his colored brother, and suffered him to grow up in darkness and ignorance; and it is only in the present age, that these claims have been listened to.  The education of the colored man us of very recent origin, a thing of yesterday. (page 3) Among the principal causes which led to the public and the City Government to yield to your just claims to the blessings of education, was the munificence of Abiel Smith Esq. who bequeathed a large sum for that object.  And the city, in respect to his memory and gratitude for his bounty, have given his name to the school, which will hereafter be known as the Smith School.  This act of kindness was singular, and not universally approved by the contemporaries of the donor, but its consequences have proved his foresight as well as his benevolence. (page 5). …the Committee entertain a hope that this school may be one efficient means of removing the prejudices heretofore existing against the character and capacity of colored people.  An opinion was formerly entertained, not among the vulgar alone, but by some learned and ingenious men, that nature has made a marked distinction in the minds of the two races; -that although the colored man had a heart susceptible of the most generous and noble emotions, and a capacity to investigate and discover truth, and was consequently an accountable moral agent, yet he had not, equally with his white brother, a power of endless improvement.  Better views however are beginning to prevail on this subject. (page 5). You live in a free country, whose laws are equal to all, and which provide you, equally with the whites, the facilities of education; and you should live in a community willing that you should enjoy the rights which the laws have secured to you.  The erection of this house is a pledge of the interest which the city now feels in your improvement, and an assurance that it will not be reluctant to furnish the means as fast as your necessities require them.  A female teacher will immediately be provided, from whose aid much advantage may be expected, especially to the girls, who in addition to the other branches, will be taught needle work. (pages 6-7).TO THE COLORED CITIZENS OF BOSTON After reading Mr. Minot's excellent address, you will perhaps not be sorry for a few remarks on some of the topics to which he alludes. The situation of the people of color in this country, has been hitherto, in some respects, unfortunate.  They are all descended from slaves, and therefore many of them are poor and ignorant.  Their color also being different from that of the great mass of the people, has been the cause of prejudices against them.  In consequence of these prejudices, the disadvantages of ignorance and poverty have been much increased, for they have not had an equal opportunity with white men in their situation, to acquire knowledge and property. Happily for you, the prejudices against your complexion are beginning to subside; and you find that many white persons now treat you as well as they would if you were of their own color. The building of a new and convenient school-house for you by the city, is a strong proof that your claims to equal treatment with the other citizens are not forgotten. You all, no doubt, are desirous of improving your condition.  How are you to do it? First, get knowledge.  The person who knows any one thing is, in that respect, superior to one who does not know it.  A boy to run errands, who can read the names on the doors of houses, is more useful than one who cannot. (page 8). Every man and woman, every boy and girl who can understand what it means, should join a temperance society.  Intemperance is not perhaps the greatest of all vices.  But whoever becomes habitually intemperate, is likely to become the slave of many other vices. (page 11). It would be easy to enlarge these hasty suggestions, but it would fill a volume to say all that might be said.  One great inducement to good conduct which ought to operate on all free persons of the colored race, is the tendency which such conduct has put an end to slavery.  Instances of the good behavior of such persons, both individually and collectively, afford powerful arguments in favor of abolition, while every instance of misconduct is, unjustly I admit, brought forward as conclusive against emancipation.  Recollect that in doing well, you are promoting the welfare, not only of yourselves, but of more than two million of your countrymen. (page 12). Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1835
Boston: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Colored Scholars Excluded from Schools Boston Athenaeum This wood-engraving, from the Anti-Slavery Almanac 13 (1839), shows a white man prohibiting black children from entering a school that white children may enter.  The caption at the bottom of the image reads: COLORED SCHOLARS EXCLUDED FROM SCHOOLS. "If the free colored people were generally taught to read, it might be an inducement to them to remain in this country.  WE WOULD OFFER THEM NO SUCH INDUCEMENT." Rev. Mr. Converse, a colonizationist, formerly of N.H. now editor of the Southern Religious Telegraph.  In those parts of the country where the persecuting spirit of colonization has been colonized, such exclusion has ceased. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1839
Nantucket: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, First page of 1841 School Committee Report Nantucket Historical Association   Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1841
Nantucket: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, March 5, 1842 Inquirer Nantucket Atheneum Transcript of an Address by the Colored Inhabitants of Nantucket in the Inquirer of March 05, 1842 At a public meeting of the colored inhabitants of Nantucket, held in the Zion's Church, February 23d, 1842, the following Resolution was offered by the Rev. Wm. Serrington, and after some remarks from Wesly Berry, Wm. Harris and others, was adopted: Resolved, That whereas the law of this Commonwealth, in reference to the privilege of education in out town schools, makes no distinction in relation to the complexion of symmetry of its inhabitants, it is therefore the judgment of the oppressed portion of the citizens of Nantucket, that it is their right, and they ought to claim, and do desire to enjoy, among other rights, the right of having their youth educated in the same schools which are common to the more favored members of this community. The following Resolution was offered by Wm. W. Morris: Resolved, That the course of those gentlemen who advocated and sustained by their votes a method of procedure which would enable our children to receive equal advantages with all the children of this commonwealth, is duly appreciated by us, and entitles them to our confidence, approbation, and esteem. This resolution was advocated by Wm. R. Robinson, C.D. Brown and others, and was unanimously adopted. It was voted that a committee of three be appointed to have the proceedings of this meeting, with an address to the citizens of Nantucket, published in the Nantucket Inquirer and the lslander, of this place. ADDRESS To the School Committee, and other Inhabitants of the Town of Nantucket. Having availed ourselves of the opportunity of witnessing your proceedings at the Town Hall, a short time ago, we were forcibly struck by the matter which was then the subject of your deliberations, and on which you were called to act.  It will not be necessary for us to say anything in relation to the power of the School Committee, nor of the duty which necessarily devolves upon them, by virtue of their being a School Committee - the agents of the whole community - to attend to the department of what is called "Common School Education," and to see that the law in reference to their charge is carried out.  Nor does the resolution, together with its amendment, appear to us to be of vital importance either way, if we understood the arguments that were advanced by some of the gentlemen then present; and our reasons are these. 1st, The citizens of the town then assembled were not a legislature. 2d, We did not assemble to offer a resolution to abolish a proscriptive or unjust law which forbade the extension of a common school privilege to all classes of the community; but, if we were assembled for any thing, at the moment of our action upon the amendment of that resolution, it appears to have been this, whether it be best to observe the laws, which are in themselves impartial and just, and which extend like privileges to all classes of the Commonwealth!!!  In bringing the subject of our claim before our fellow citizens, we wish, by no means, to convey the idea that they have inflicted a recent wound us, as an oppressed portion of the citizens of this town, but a wound of some years standing, the sensation of which, if it be chafed, is apt to become keen.  We look upon ourselves, and we feel as an INJURED PORTION of this community, and injured indeed in such a way that no member of this Commonwealth can possibly be benefitted (sic) by it.  It may now be asked, In what respect are you injured? How can it be shown that you are not impartially dealt with? Wherein have your rights been violated? To these inquiries, we answer briefly: This Commonwealth is, or may be considered, as a large society, having an instrument called a Constitution.  This instrument is intended to express the object of the association, and defines the obligations under which its members have come in respect to each other.  It expresses the manner in which that object is to be accomplished; that is, it declares what the individual promises to do for the society, and what the society promises to do for the individual, and the object for which the association is formed.  We have a code of laws, which are supposed to be agreeable with the spirit of the Constitution in general.  Having made the above remarks, we now take for granted that the Constitution and laws of this Commonwealth make no distinction among its citizens on account of complexion or symmetry.  If this be acknowledged, then we infer that the Constitution and law of this State recognise (sic) the equality of its citizens in respect to rights. -  Again, whatever system may be formed or arrangements made for the benefit of the members of this Commonwealth, let it be the Common School system, or any other system by which its inhabitants mat be benefitted (sic) or improved, the inference is, that all are to enjoy the advantages to be derived from them on equal terms, in the same manner, and in the same amount.  This inference, we presume our citizens will acknowledge to be reasonable and just, unless any one will attempt to show that God created man with as great a variety of rights as there are distinctions of color and form, and that society has a right to proportion the privileges of its members upon such considerations.  This assumption is so big with absurdity that it needs no argument to make its inconsistency apparent.  Again, the town school privileges of us who are called the colored portion of the citizens, as members of this society, and as far as Constitution and Law are concerned, are identical with those of citizens in general, because there is no proscriptive act that we know of to prevent the colored citizens enjoying the Common School system of education, in the same manner, and in the same amount, that it is enjoyed by our more favored fellow citizens. - But do we enjoy it because it is lawful that we should? While our more favored fellow citizens have all the facilities of obtaining a good education in a graduation of Schools, viz. Infant, Primary, Grammar, High School. &c., with every advantage that is calculated to inspire the youthful mind with aspirations to excel; in a word, while they enjoy every benefit that the Common School system holds out, while we are all rejected, and that contrary to our laws, because it has pleased the good Creator to make our complexions differ from those of others of our fellow citizens.  If this be the ground of our exclusion, as we have stated, and we think that our statement is undeniable, then we will most respectfully, ask this intelligent and Christian community who know this is to be the ground of our exclusion, is it right, is it just? But it will be asked, Have you not got a School to which you can send your children?  To which we answer, we are weary of this kind of honor of distinction; we want no exclusive school privileges; we are citizens of this great republic; our veins are full of republican blood; we contend not for, neither do we desire, any rights or privileges that are not common to the rest of the members of this community.  But let us admit for argument sake, that the school located at the South part of the town is a good school, which we are willing to admit, for there can be nothing gained by the admission to favor injustice; for the school may be as good as it can be, and yet fail to accomplish the object for which you have reared your four gradations of schools, viz. Infant, Primary, Grammar, and High Schools, and to which each member of this community has an equal right, irrespective of complexion, or any other accidental consideration. Again, let it be granted for the sake of argument, that the exclusion of our children from the other public schools, and colonizing them by themselves, is no injustice in itself, (which we think that no just man, with a sound head and a pure heart will grant;) then it can be proved, we presume, that we are deeply injured, by showing that we are all, irrespective of complexional difference, entitled to the same privileges, and to the same amount of education which our common school system holds out to the rest of our fellow citizens, and that it is in the highest degree improbable, that the colored children can obtain that amount of education which our common school system is designed to furnish; and for the accomplishment of which system of education, you have needed several gradations to which the colored children are denied access, on the ground, as we understand it, that God has made their skins rather browner that the morbid state of public opinion can very well bear!We might here multiply words, but in whatever light the subject be viewed, when we reflect that we are by the Constitution and laws acknowledged to be citizens, and consequently entitled to all the rights and privileges in common with other citizens, and then that for a mere accident, the difference of complexion, we are denied the right or privilege of education in common with our fellow citizens; we must pronounce it to be unkind, unjust. Again, it is said that some of the colored citizens do not wish to enjoy equal privileges of education with their lighter complexioned brethren.  Granted; let it be so, and then what will this prove? Will it prove that rights and privileges go by the hundred?  We mean such rights and privileges as we have been speaking of. - Is the common school privilege, a privilege which, before it can be enjoyed by any citizen, he must necessarily go around and pray every family or parent to agree with him, before he can offer his claim; or is it a right that belongs to every citizen in particular, separate and apart from whatever course his neighbor may see fit to pursue?  And in this case, if there be a few persons, who, for some considerations which may be satisfactory to themselves, wish to occupy such a position in the community as must reflect upon their judgment, all that we who desire our rights, have to say is that we do not envy their position.  And again, we add if there be any persons to be found who do not wish, and we will not claim their rights, we by no means, consider our claim as impaired on that account.  We here submit these remarks to the inhabitants of the town of Nantucket, hoping that the day is not far distant, when the good sense and christianity (sic) of this republic will proceed to make its distinctions in Society on just and reasonable grounds, and not according to the color of the skin, and when the common proverb for distinction shall be, Mentem non frontem hominis spectato. In behalf of the oppressed portion of the citizens of Nantucket,WILLIAM SERRINGTON,WILLIAM MORRIS,WILLIAM HARRIS,Committee for Publication. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1842
Nantucket: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, March 18, 1843 Islander Nantucket Atheneum Transcript of the March 18, 1843 Islander Several town meetings have lately been held in this place, at which a question of some importance was discussed.  The question was upon instructing the School Committee to resign if they could not carry out the wishes of the town.  A resolution to this effect was introduced at one of the meetings, and was discussed for several days, and finally passed at the meeting which was held on Monday last.  If we are rightly informed, this resolution is intended to prevent the success of a project which it is stated that a majority of the Committee have in view, namely, the abolition of the African School now maintained in this place, and the distribution of the colored scholars among the other schools, in the same manner that white children are distributed among them.Of the right of the Committee to thus act, we presume there is little doubt.  If they should carry out the reform which it is said they have in contemplation, they will act in strict accordance with law; and admitting that the resolution adopted on Monday is directed immediately against that reform, they will violate the law if they pay any regard to it.  We readily admit, that as a matter of expediency, much can be urged against the abolition of the African School; but nothing can be urged against such a course which should have any weight with those who are disposed to act strictly according to the law of the land.  The School Committee are in some respects state officers, and are not called upon to obey the will of those who elect them only.  They are responsible to the state as well as the town; to the state, because they are bound to see that its laws with regard to education are enforced; and to the town, that they be governed by the dictates of a wise economy in enforcing these laws.  How the School Committee may act in the premises, we have no means of ascertaining; but as it is composed mostly of judicious and liberal-minded men, we are of opinion that their action will be such as shall commend itself to the approval of the great majority of those who elected them. While the resolution above spoken of was under discussions, there was much able speaking, and con-(line blurred, text overlaps on microfilm copy) - which appears so disgraceful to every man who appreciates the doctrine of equality.  The principal speakers on the liberal side were Messrs. Nathaniel Barney, A. M. Macy, John H. Shaw, Henry Clapp, Jr., Cyrus Pierce, Issac Austin, and Wesley Berry.  They all urged their views with great effect, and sometimes with remarkable eloquence, for their hearts were in matter.  Mr. Barney, who is so well known to our citizens as a man of great practical benevolence, stood among the foremost of the liberals, and it is but justice to say, that this is always his post when an intellectual combat takes place here between the parties of conservatism and reform.  Mr. Shaw displayed the same severe logic and close reasoning that always mark his efforts as a public speaker, and we were glad to see him so ably combating against error and prejudice.  Messrs. Clapp and Macy spoke with argument and fervor, and won much credit by their exertions.  High praise is indeed due to all who took part in the discussion on the side of freedom.  On the other side, there was also some good speaking, but it did not equal that of their opponents.  Mr. Bunker was the ablest advocate of the views of what we feel compelled to call the anti-liberal party.  We are unable to say precisely on what side Mr. Easton was, though it stuck us that his speeches were intended to operate in favor of the resolution.  The same display of bad feeling was exhibited by the rank and file of those who supported the resolution, as is always manifested by the prejudiced when their errors are receiving deserved rebukes from reason and argument.             While they are their speakers were treated with all due courtesy, they were far from making a proper return, but evinced a disposition to trample upon the rights of those who differed with them in opinion.  Such always will be the case, and as reformers are prepared for it, we presume they reckon it as one of the lightest of their troubles.  In the present instance, it had no effect in retarding discussion, the speakers on the reform side taking no notice of it.  This was the proper course. A bray is no doubt an exceedingly disagreeable noise, but its dissonance is by no means done away with by treating it with any attention.  It should be treated as if it were poi (it appears that the word is poi), and this may lead to its cessation.  If the champions of prejudice had half the wisdom of their opponents, they would at once see the folly of their course.  Do they not know that the warmer and the more boisterous their opposition to any reform measure, the more likely it is to be advocated? -Many a measure which has had but a small chance of success when first advanced, has been indebted for its final triumph to the brutal opposition of its enemies, who forgot their manhood in their manner of manifesting their hatred to the cause of human advancement. Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1843
Nantucket: Primary Source; 19th Century Desegregation, Excerpts from "The Brotherhood of Thieves" pamphlet by Stephen S. Foster Massachusetts Historical Society From a transcript of beginning of "An Original Stereotyped Edition of The Brotherhood of Thieves; or a True Picture of the American Church and Clergy" (A Letter to Nathaniel Barney of  Nantucket). By Stephen S. FosterPublished in Boston: Anti-Slavery Office, 25 Cornhill, 1844. The pamphlet could not be scanned because of its poor condition, but  Excerpts were included because of the importance of this speech at the time of the Anti-Slavery convention in Nantucket to subsequent events on the island.LETTER TO NATHANIEL BARNEYEsteemed Friend: In the early part of last autumn, I received a letter from you requesting me to prepare an article for the press, in vindication of the strong language of denunciation of the American church and clergy, which I employed at the late Anti-Slavery Convention on your island, and which was the occasion of the disgraceful mob, which disturbed and broke up that meeting. (p 1)I place a very low estimate on the good opinions of my countrymen - quite as low, I think, as they do on mine, if I may judge from their very great anxiety to have me speak well of them, which I positively never can, so long as their national capital is a human flesh-mart, and their chief magistrate is a slave-breeder. (p 1)I said at your meeting, among other things, that the American church and clergy, as a body, were thieves, adulterers, man-stealers, pirates, and murderers; that the Methodist Episcopal church was more corrupt and profilgate than any house of ill-fame in the city of New York; that the Southern ministers of that body were desirous of perpetuating slavery for the purpose of supplying themselves with concubines from among its hapless victims; and that many of our clergymen were guilty of enormities that would disgrace an Algerian pirate!!! (p 7-8)Hence all who, through their political or ecclesiastical connections, aid or countenance the master in his work of death, are slaveholders, and, as such, are stained with all the moral turpitude which attaches to the man who, by their sanction, wields the bloody lash over the heads of his trembling victims, and buries it deep within their quivering flesh (p 13)Even the Free-Will Baptists and Quakers, with all their professed abhorrence of slavery, and their numerous public testimonies against it, in consideration of the paltry sum of four hundred dollars paid into the national treasury, license the auctioneer in human flesh in the city of Washington (p 21)It follows, then, as a legitimate and certain conclusion, that, as the ministers and members of the Northern church, with comparatively fewexceptions, have ranged themselves in the ranks of the Whig or Democratic partiy, and have thus not only voluntarily formed a political alliance with the slave-claimants, in all the different states of the Union, guarantying their personal security, and the return of their fugitive slaves, but have also given their direct sanction to slavery, by legalizing it, and refusing to emancipate thoes whom they have a constitutional right to set free, they are slaveholders in the most odious sense of this term, and, as such, are guilty of all the crimes alleged against them in my first charge (p 24)...Those clergymen ..who refuse to rebuke the members of their churches for voting with those parties in support of slavery, are as responsible for the votes as they would be, had they deposited them in the ballot-box with their own hands. (p. 26) Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1844
Lowell, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Document, Letter from Lydia Bixby to her Mother Lowell National Historical Park From Lydia Bixby to her mother dated May 22 (no year) probably from the Nashua (Corp). She complains about the amount of food at her boarding place; is in good health; "there is a great cry for yankee girls;" wants her relatives to visit her; has fond memories of school days.  Note: The year might be 1843, since she mentions her overseer is a Millerite and that they believe that the world will end "next year" (Miller predicted that the world would end in or before 1843 or 1844; the Millerite movement declined after 1845 but many of its adherents went on to found other millenial religious organizations) However if this is the same Lydia mentioned in Eliza A. Bixby's letter to her brother in 1852, the date must be some time after 1852 because according to Eliza, Lydia had just started to work in the mills in 1852. Full text through LNHP Industrial - Beginning (1815-1860) 1845
Lowell, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Document, Lowell Offering, and Cover Illustration Lowell National Historical Park This "Repository of Original Articles, written by 'Factory Girls'", was printed in Boston during the 1840s. Sarah Bagley, the first female labor activist, wrote about the "Pleasures of Factory Life" in this issue which spoke of ways the factory girls educated themselves, had gardens and went to lectures, plays, church etc., but she also wrote many pieces that were critical of the long hours, bad health conditions and poor pay. This cover is the best known picture showing the brighter side of a mill girl's life. Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Metropolitan Era (1900-1980) 1845
Lowell, Massachusetts: Primary Source; Document, Regulations from Tremont Mills Lowell National Historical Park REGULATIONS TO BE OBSERVED BY ALL PERSONS EMPLOYED BY THE PROPRIETORS OF THE TREMONT MILLS The overseers are to be punctually in their Rooms at the starting of the Mill, and not to be absent unnecessarily during working hours. They are to see that all those employed in their rooms are in their places in due season, and keep a correct account of their time and work. They may grant leave of absence to those employed under them when there are spare hnds in the room to supply their place; otherwise they are not to grant leave of absence except in case of absolute emergency.       All persons in the employ of the Proprietors of the Tremont Mills, are required to observe the regulations of the room where they are employed. They are not be be absent from their work without consent, except in case of sickness, and then they are to send the Overseer word of the cause of their absence.      They are to board in one of the Boarding houses belonging to the Company, and conform to the regulations of the house where they board.      The Company will not employ any one who is habitually absent from public workship on the Sabbath.       All persons entering into the employment of theCompany are considered as engaging to work twelve months.       All persons intending to leave the employment of theCompany are to give two week/s notice of their intenetion to their Overseer; and their engagement with the Company is not considered as fulfilled, unless they comply with this regulation.      Payments will be made monthly, including board and wages, which will be made up to the last Saturday of every month, and paid in the course of the following week.      These Regulations are considered a part of the contract with all persons ent4ering into the employment of the Proprietors of the Tremont Mills.                                                           J. Aiken, Agent Industrial - Urban (1860-1900), Metropolitan Era (1900-1980) 1845
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